Welcome to the website (from now on, also just the “website”). Below you will find the terms and conditions of service (hereinafter also “conditions”) which apply, proportionally, to those who use the website exclusively as simple visitors; to those who create a user profile and/or who proceed with the online purchase of products among those available on the website.
The website is owned by Innbiotec Pharma S.r.l. (VAT number: 6109520483), in the person of its pro tempore legal representative, with registered office in Via Martiri di Civitella, 5 – 52100 Arezzo (IT).

These are our contacts:


We would like to inform you that the creation of an account, as well as the purchase of the available products, is only permitted for people who have reached the age of 18, due to the nature of the products that can be purchased on the website. It is therefore strictly forbidden for those who have not reached this age to proceed with the creation of the account and/or with the purchase of the products. In any case, Innbiotec Pharma S.r.l. S.r.l hereby declares itself not responsible for any false and/or inaccurate and/or mendacious and/or illegal declaration issued by users, as well as for any purchase request in violation of the above.

We ask you to carefully read each clause of the conditions below before proceeding with the purchase. The forwarding of the request, in fact, represents the full acceptance of the same. Innbiotec Pharma S.r.l. S.r.l also informs you that it reserves the unquestionable right to modify the conditions of the service over time, in whole or in part. For this reason, we invite you to read the conditions also in the future and with a certain frequency, because they may have undergone changes and/or modifications in the meantime.

If there are any doubts or questions regarding the terms and conditions of service, contact us at the email address We will try to answer you as soon as possible.

In the event that the user believes that he is unable/willing to accept these conditions, whatever the reason, he is required not to use the services offered by the site, nor to proceed with the purchase request.

Innbiotec Pharma S.r.l. is very attentive to the care and correct use of your personal data. You can learn more about this aspect by reading our privacy policy in the footer of the website.


The Website allows the user to purchase one or more nutritional and/or food supplements, and dermo-cosmetics (now also only “products”) according to the definition set out in Legislative Decree 21 May 2004, n. 169, to be understood as food products intended to supplement the common diet and which constitute a concentrated source of nutrients, such as vitamins and minerals, or other substances having a nutritional or physiological effect.

The online offer and sale of these products through the website constitute a distance contract governed by articles 45 et seq. of Legislative Decree 6 September 2005 n. 206 (“Consumer Code”), in the case of a consumer user, and by Legislative Decree 9 April 2003, n. 70, containing the regulation of electronic commerce.


On the website, you can create your own profile by entering some personal data, in addition to your login credentials. Once the registration phase has been successfully completed, the user will be able to access his private area with functions that will allow him to modify his data even later.

Furthermore, following registration, the user will be able to proceed with the purchase of products by accessing his personal account by entering the username and password chosen by the user himself. In this way, during the purchase phase, the system will automatically report the data referable to the specific account in the order form, without the need for the user to enter them manually. However, it is possible for the user to manually modify some data (e.g. shipping address) with reference to the specific order.

By registering on the site, the user then declares:

  • to be at least 18 years old and to guarantee the truthfulness and completeness of all the information entered in the registration form;
  • I have read the privacy information.

While during the purchase of one or more products, the user will be asked to accept the general conditions of the Contract.

The user is aware that the username and password for accessing his personal account must be stored in a secure manner, kept secret and in any case used in such a way as to prevent third parties from accessing his account. Innbiotec Pharma S.r.l. is not responsible in any way for any orders placed by subjects other than the account holder without his consent. In the event of theft and/or loss and/or unauthorized disclosure of their personal account access credentials, the customer must immediately inform Innbiotec Pharma S.r.l., via the communication channels available.


After selecting the products he intends to purchase on the website, the user must proceed with sending the order by selecting the chosen payment method, verifying the correctness of the data entered, including the shipping address, and clicking on the appropriate button. It should be noted that in this phase the User can at any time identify and correct any data entry errors by following the instructions indicated from time to time on the Site and which accompany the various phases of the purchase, accepting these Conditions as a result.

Sending a Purchase Order constitutes a definitive and irrevocable purchase offer and implies full acceptance of the information contained on the Site and the Terms of Sale as well as the assumption of the obligation to pay for the Product ordered. Once sent, the Purchase Order can no longer be modified.

The order contract for any product ordered on the website must be considered finalized with the acceptance by Innbiotec Pharma S.r.l. of the Purchase Order. Your Purchase Order will be considered accepted at the latest when we have received full payment of the amount due for the purchase of the Product/s.

While the Order Confirmation email only confirms the receipt of your Purchase Order and its acceptance by Innbiotec Pharma, but does not constitute an acceptance of the Purchase Order and does not determine the conclusion of the sales contract.

It should be noted that the Order Confirmation contains detailed information relating to the products purchased, as well as an order number and will be archived in the Innbiotec Pharma S.r.l. database. for the time necessary to execute the order and, in any case, in accordance with the law also in relation to the company policies on the protection of personal data.

If for any reason Innbiotec Pharma S.r.l. is unable to execute the order, the Customer will be informed as soon as possible. In this regard, please note that all product orders are subject to availability. In this sense, in the event of supply problems, or if there are no products in stock, we reserve the right to provide the Customer with information relating to substitute products of equal or greater quality and value, which the Customer may decide to purchase.

If, on the other hand, Innbiotec Pharma S.r.l. has already received payment for this order, the company will refund the amount using the same method chosen by the Customer to make the payment. In the event that different agreements are required, Innbiotec Pharma S.r.l. will inform the Customer by means of a specific communication. In any case, the User can request information and/or clarifications relating to any refunds using the contacts in the footer of the website.

The User is informed that the language available for the entire phase of compiling, sending and confirming the order is Italian and/or English.


By accepting the terms and conditions, the user declares to have read and understood the following:

  • That the labeling, presentation and advertising of nutritional supplements do not attribute therapeutic properties to the same supplements, nor the ability to prevent or treat human diseases, nor do they otherwise refer to similar properties;
  • That in the labelling, presentation and advertising of nutritional supplements there are no indications which state or imply that a balanced and varied diet is generally not capable of supplying nutrients in sufficient quantities;
  • That the labeling contains a warning not to exceed the recommended doses for daily intake;
  • That any information, photos, videos, communications provided on this site and relating to health conditions, medical and/or preventive treatments, drugs, pathologies and/or ailments are presented purely as an indication and for informational purposes to guide the user towards a correct and informed choice;
  • That the information on the site and/or on the labeling of the products must in no way replace the direct relationship between the health professional and the patient. In fact, it should be noted that this site does not provide any type of medical advice and does not in any way replace the advice of the attending physician or specialist doctors.

It is also recommended to the Customer before the purchase and/or before taking the food supplement:

  • to carefully read the product labeling and all the information on the website in order to understand: the name of the categories of nutrients or other substances that characterize the product the indication relating to the nature of these substances; the nutritional or physiological effect attributed to the product on the basis of its constituents and the recommended dose for daily intake;
  • to comply with the conditions of correct conservation of the same;
  • to consult, in the presence of pathologies, their own doctor before purchasing and/or using and/or taking the products purchased on the site. To this end, it is the Customer’s responsibility to carefully check the possible presence of allergens on the label of the products purchased and to verify its compatibility with their health conditions.
  • to carry out a medical consultation especially if the product is aimed at pediatric subjects, people over 65 years of age or suffering from any pathological condition. Furthermore, pregnant and breastfeeding women are advised not to take food supplements unless clearly needed, following a prescription from their doctor.


Without prejudice to the provisions of art. 3 regarding possible refusals to process the order and except where extraordinary circumstances occur, Innbiotec Pharma S.r.l. undertakes to do everything in its power to send the order for the products indicated in the relative Shipping Confirmation by the date indicated in this Shipping Confirmation or, if no delivery date is specified, within the estimated and/or indicated term when selecting the delivery method and, in any case, within the maximum term of 30 days from the date of the Order Confirmation.

In Italy, shipping costs are free for orders with a purchase of two or more packs. For orders of a pack, the shipping costs amount to € 4.99. It is always possible to check the amount of the shipping costs before finalizing the order. In Italy shipments are entrusted to the GLS courier. Finally, it is possible to consult the tracked shipments via the GLS website at this link.

As far as foreign shipping costs are concerned, these are free with an amount equal to or greater than € 99.00 including VAT. For orders of an amount equal to or less than € 98.99 including VAT, the shipping costs vary according to the place of shipment, the shipping times requested by the Customer and, in any case, the Customer himself can check the amount at the time of the order. Foreign shipments are entrusted to GLS based on the country of destination.

However, the Customer, with the acceptance of these conditions, understands and accepts that delays may occur for various reasons such as the occurrence of unforeseen circumstances and/or force majeure or depending on the delivery area. If for any reason we are unable to meet the delivery terms, we will inform the Customer and give them the options to continue the purchase by setting a new delivery date, or to cancel the order, with the consequent refund of the entire amount paid.

For the purposes of these Conditions, the “delivery” will be understood as having taken place or the order “delivered” through the acquisition, by the Customer or a third party indicated by the latter, of the material availability or in any case control of the products.


The price of the products will be that indicated from time to time on our website. Although Innbiotec Pharma undertakes to do everything in its power to ensure that all prices appearing on the site are correct, errors may occur. If errors are found in the price of the products ordered by the Customer, we will inform him as soon as possible giving him the option of reconfirming his order at the right amount or canceling it. If it is not possible to get in touch with the Customer, the order will be canceled and the full amount paid will be refunded to him.

The prices on the website include VAT, but exclude shipping costs, which are to be added to the total amount to be paid, where they are not free as indicated in art. 5 (see Delivery).

In compliance with art. 17 bis of the Consumer Code, in the event of price reduction announcements, in addition to the discount percentage, the lowest price applied by Innbiotec Pharma S.r.l. will also be indicated. in the thirty days preceding the reduction.


The Customer can make the payment:

  • with Visa, Mastercard, American Express, Maestro credit cards;
    through PayPal;
  • Advance Bank Transfer: Holder: innbiotec pharma srl; Bank: Monte dei Paschi di Siena; Iban: IT80 I010 3014 1000 0000 4647 168; bic swift: pascitmmare;
  • Cash on delivery of the goods (for this option there is an additional cost for the management of the payment by the Express Courier of € 3.00).

Payment will be made upon receipt of the goods. We recommend that the Customer prepare the exact amount indicated in the shipment notification e-mail as the courier cannot give change.

In the event that the Customer selects the credit cards of the circuits indicated above as a payment method, when authorizing the payment, the Customer confirms that the credit card belongs to him. Credit cards are subject to verification and authorization by the issuer of the same, but if this entity does not authorize payment, we will not be responsible for any delay or non-delivery and we will not be able to enter into any Contract with the Customer.


The function of purchasing products as a guest is also available on this site. With this method of purchase, the Customer will only be asked for those data that are essential to process his order. Upon completion of the purchase process, the Customer will be offered the option of registering as a user or continuing as an unregistered user.


In the event that the Customer is a consumer, he will have the right to withdraw from the Contract within a period of 14 days without having to provide any reason. The withdrawal period referred to in the previous paragraph ends after 14 days starting from the day on which the consumer Customer, or a third party other than the carrier and designated by him, acquires physical possession of the goods or, in the case of multiple goods ordered through a single order and delivered separately, ends after 14 days from the day on which the Customer or a third party other than the carrier and designated by him acquires physical possession of the last good.

To exercise the right of withdrawal, the Customer is required to send an electronic communication to, or by sending a registered letter to Innbiotec Pharma s.r.l., Via Martiri di Civitella, 5 – 52100 Arezzo (IT), explaining his decision to withdraw from the Contract.

If the Customer withdraws from the Contract, Innbiotec Pharma s.r.l., will immediately communicate to the Consumer a confirmation of receipt of the exercised Withdrawal; these will then be reimbursed for all payments made to Innbiotec Pharma s.r.l., including delivery costs (with the exception of additional costs deriving from the possible choice of a type of delivery other than the less expensive type of standard delivery offered by us), without undue delay and in any case no later than 14 days from the day on which the company will have been informed of the Customer’s decision to withdraw from the Contract. These refunds will be made using the same means of payment used by the Customer for the initial transaction. In any event, you will not incur any costs as a result of such reimbursement.

Without prejudice to the foregoing, the refund may be suspended until receipt of the goods or until the Customer demonstrates that he has sent the goods back, whichever is the earlier.


The products sold through this website are supported by the mandatory legal guarantee provided by law in favor of consumers, to cover any lack of conformity existing at the time of delivery of the goods.

The legal guarantee covers any lack of conformity of the goods which should occur within the term of two years from the relative delivery. There is a lack of conformity if, for example, the product purchased by the Customer:

  • does not conform to the description provided and does not possess the qualities presented on this website;
  • it is not suitable for the use to which the products are normally intended;
  • does not have the qualities and characteristics of a product of the same type and which can reasonably be expected, taking into account the nature of the goods and, where appropriate, the specific characteristics presented.

If the Customer believes that one or more products purchased have conformity defects, he is requested to contact Innbiotec Pharma s.r.l., using the references indicated on the website, remembering that it is necessary to make the goods available to Innbiotec Pharma s.r.l.

In the event of a lack of conformity, the Consumer may request, without costs (including shipping costs), the restoration by choosing from one of the possible remedies, such as replacement or repair, unless the chosen remedy is objectively impossible or excessively expensive, as indicated by consumer legislation.

The Legal Guarantee is limited to purchases made by Consumers. As far as subjects other than Consumers are concerned, the provisions of the Civil Code in articles 1490 and following..


Without prejudice to what has already been indicated in the other clauses regarding the exclusion of liability of Innbiotec Pharma S.r.l., the following also applies.

Except in cases of willful misconduct or gross negligence attributable exclusively to Innbiotec Pharma S.r.l., the latter is not liable towards customers and/or third parties, either contractually or extra-contractually, or in any case whatever the title or reason, for damages deriving from the use of the website. In particular, Innbiotec Pharma S.r.l. is not responsible for:

  • any loss of profits, sales, business or income;
  • loss of business opportunity;
  • loss of goodwill;
  • any indirect or consequential loss.

Innbiotec Pharma S.r.l. has the full power and right to make any changes to the material on the site or to the functioning of the same and to the prices described therein, at any time and without notice.

If changes are made that affect the consumer’s rights, or if these terms and conditions of service are modified in whole or in part, Innbiotec Pharma S.r.l. will send an email to all interested parties.

Changes to the terms and conditions of service will have no effect on orders for products that have already been processed and concluded, or on orders that have already been definitively confirmed.

Innbiotec Pharma S.r.l. is not responsible for any problems related to the intake of the products purchased. In this regard, the Customer is invited to carefully read the product labels as indicated in art. 4 of these terms and conditions.


The Customer acknowledges and accepts that all copyrights, registered trademarks and any intellectual property right on the materials or contents presented as an integral part of the website are the property of Innbiotec Pharma S.r.l. and those who have licensed it for their use.


Innbiotec Pharma S.r.l. processes any personal information received in full compliance with European Regulation No. 679/2016 (so-called GDPR). To find out in detail the methods of treatment, Innbiotec Pharma S.r.l. invites the customer to read the appropriate privacy policy.


If one or more terms or conditions of these General Conditions are declared invalid, void or ineffective, in whole or for any part, the invalidity, nullity or ineffectiveness will concern only these terms, conditions or provisions and the remaining terms will remain valid and effective to the maximum extent permitted by law.

These General Conditions and any other document explicitly referred to in them constitute the entire agreement between Innbiotec Pharma S.r.l. and the Client, superseding all previous discussions, correspondence, negotiations, any previous arrangements, understandings or agreements between the parties relating to the subject matter of the contract.

Any failed or late implementation (in whole or in part) of any provision of these General Conditions cannot be interpreted as a waiver by either party to assert their rights or remedies.

Innbiotec Pharma S.r.l. may assign any right or obligation provided for by these General Conditions to a company affiliated with it or to any company with which it associates to carry out the business activity, which it acquires or to which it is sold, even in the event of the transfer of a company or business branch and provided that following the transfer the protection of consumers’ rights is not diminished.


All complaints and disputes that may arise in relation to these General Conditions will be governed and interpreted in accordance with Italian law. For consumers residing in Italy, the mandatory legislation for consumer protection provided for by Italian law (Consumer Code) will apply.

Any dispute arising from these General Conditions concerning non-consumer users will be devolved to the exclusive jurisdiction of the Arezzo court. In the event of a dispute arising from these General Conditions concerning consumer users, the place of residence or domicile of the consumer will be competent.

Alternatively, the consumer can forward his complaint to the Online Resolution Platform for out-of-court dispute resolution (European ODR Platform) (Article 14, paragraph 1 of EU Regulation 524/2013). For more information about the European ODR Platform or to file a complaint and start alternative procedures for disputes relating to this contract, you can use the following link:

We may modify these General Conditions at any time by giving adequate notice to the Customer and/or User.

Innbiotec Pharma s.r.l.
Via Martiri di Civitella, 5, 52100 Arezzo (IT)
Tel.: 0575 34 81 13
P.I. 06109520483 –



Copyright © 2024 – INNBIOTEC PHARMA srl – P.I. 06109520483 – Site created by Numerouno ict


The beneficial effects of oleuropein Oleuropein is the main polyphenol present in the leaves and fruits of the olive tree; it is found in extra virgin olive oil both in the form linked to a glucose molecule (glycated) and in the non-glycated form. For some time, natural polyphenols have attracted growing interest for their beneficial properties against numerous diseases, ranging from cancer to cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases and, more generally, for their ability to counteract the aging of cells, tissues and the whole organism. These properties are not limited to their known antioxidant power but go far beyond; the most recent studies have begun to demonstrate the effective clinical efficacy of the administration of polyphenols on humans and to reveal the molecular and cellular mechanisms with which these substances exert these effects and which are the basis of the nutritional virtues commonly associated with the so-called “Mediterranean Diet ”.

The results of the clinical trials conducted, together with the available epidemiological and experimental data consistently support the protective effect associated with the daily intake of oleuropein through the use of nutraceutical preparations consisting of olive leaf extracts enriched with the substance. 

The data provided by scientific research are particularly significant as regards the anti-neurodegenerative and anti-diabetic effects of oleuropein. The former were reported thanks to a series of studies carried out both on neuronal cells in culture and on model animals, in particular genetically modified mice in order to mimic a brain situation similar to that present in Alzheimer’s disease, the main form of dementia associated to aging in humans. In these mice, the administration of oleuropein with the normal meal in doses equivalent to approximately 200-°©-300 mg in humans has clearly beneficial effects in terms of cognitive performance, which are maintained at levels comparable with those of normal mice of the same age . At the histopathological and cellular level, this effect can be traced back to the reduction of the load of amyloid plaques (which characterize the disease) and of the inflammatory response and, in parallel, to a strong stimulation of the autophagic response, which protects the cell against the toxicity of the plaques and stimulates its reabsorption. These effects, which show a clear dose-°©-dependence, are similar to those produced by other polyphenols (resveratrol, curcumin, epigallocatechins) and can, at least in part, be traced back to the mobilization of calcium from intracellular deposits with the consequent activation of signals that result in the activation of autophagy. It has also been demonstrated that oleuropein can directly reduce the load of amyloid plaques by favoring a pathway that reduces the production of the precursor peptide of the same. Furthermore, recent studies on other polyphenols demonstrate effects of an epigenetic type, consisting in the modulation of the expression of particular sets of genes following reversible chemical modifications of the chromatin which do not alter the genetic heritage but the way in which it is expressed. These studies explain the anticancer effects of these polyphenols and, presumably, also those exerted by oleuropein, through the regulation of the activity of enzymes involved in the chemical modifications of chromatin.

 The antidiabetic action of oleuropein is supported by recent clinical trials. One of these showed that the daily administration of about 50 mg of the polyphenol for 12 weeks to a group of middle-aged, overweight subjects at risk for developing type 2 diabetes reduced blood sugar and improved both the secretion and insulin sensitivity. Another study conducted in human subjects with type 2 diabetes given 500 mg of oleuropein per day for 14 weeks showed a significant improvement in glucose homeostasis, with reductions in glycosylated hemoglobin and fasting insulin levels, while a reduction in starch digestion and absorption was noted in rats treated with oleuropein. Other studies have shown that in vitro oleuropein prevents the amyloid aggregation of amylin, a peptide secreted together with insulin by pancreatic beta cells, the aggregates of which are believed to be co-responsible for the cellular suffering that accompanies the onset of diabetes type 2. The efficacy of oleuropein in contrasting both the onset of type 2 diabetes and some of its consequences can be seen in a broader protective effect against the metabolic syndrome. In fact, other studies have shown that in mice, oleuropein attenuates fatty liver disease and reduces obesity induced by a high-fat diet. The anti-°©-obesity effect and the modulation of glucose homeostasis had previously been reported also for other plant polyphenols. In conclusion, the available scientific data convincingly support the efficacy of the daily intake of large doses of oleuropein for the prevention of pathologies linked to aging such as senile dementia and cancer, or to metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. The constant daily intake of large doses of oleuropein through the supplementation, with nutraceutical products, of the normal content of the substance in the diet therefore appears useful and recommendable in order to prevent and treat the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus, also in consideration of the absence of side effects related to the intake of oleuropein. 


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  • Rigacci S, Guidotti V, Bucciantini M, Nichino D, Relini A, Berti A, Stefani M.  Aβ(1-42) aggregates into non-toxic amyloid assemblies in the presence of the natural polyphenol oleuropein aglycon.  Curr Alzheimer Res. 2011 Dec;8(8):841-52.    
  • Rigacci S, Guidotti V, Bucciantini M, Parri M, Nediani C, Cerbai E, Stefani M, Berti A.  Oleuropein aglycon prevents cytotoxic amyloid aggregation of human amylin.  J Nutr Biochem. 2010 Aug;21(8):726-35.     

Bacopa monnieri

Bacopa monnieri is a nootropic herb that has been used for longevity and cognitive enhancement. Supplementation with its extracts can improve memory, especially in the short term, and bring benefits for mental health. Bacopa monnieri, commonly known as water hyssop, is an herb often used in Ayurvedic medicine. It is taken in various formats with the aim of improving cognitive functions, relieving stress and promoting an overall improvement in vitality. Bacosides, the main active substances of Bacopa monnieri, interact with the dopamine and serotonin systems, but the main mechanism concerns neuronal communication, stimulating the growth of neuronal dendrites. Bacopa monnieri also has antioxidant effects.

The benefits of Bacopa monnieri

An improvement in memory is the main known effect of Bacopa. Although effects of this nature are usually studied in the elderly, Bacopa monnieri appears to be effective in young people as well. Some preliminary research suggests it may reduce cortisol secretion and depletion of dopamine and serotonin during chronic stress. It may have antidepressant effects, but more confirmatory research is needed.

Side effects of Bacopa monnieri

Taking Bacopa monnieri on an empty stomach can cause nausea, cramping, bloating and diarrhea. Since Bacopa monnieri can have anxiolytic (anxiety reducing) effects, it is not advisable to take it in combination with other anxiolytics.



Pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita maxima) have been used in ethnic and traditional medicine as a remedy for kidney, bladder and prostate disorders. Pumpkin seed oil has several phenolic compounds such as vanillic acid, vanillin, luteolin and sinapic acid . Pumpkin seed consumption reduces markers of inflammation, increases lymphocyte count, improves phagocytic activity, and inhibits the progression of fatty liver disease into steatohepatitis.

Recent studies have shown how oral intake of Cucurbita extract reduces patients’ bladder hyperactivity, preventing urinary disorders and producing an effect on urinary health; it also reduces the risk of bladder and kidney stones.

The lipid extract of Cucurbita maxima seeds slows the progress of hypertension and decreases hypercholesterolemia due to the content of unsaturated fatty acids and phytosterols. Furthermore, Cucurbita seed extracts show hypoglycaemic activity, contributing to the prevention of diabetes mellitus.


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Epilobium angustifolium L. is a well-known medicinal plant traditionally used in the treatment of urogenital diseases, stomach and liver disorders, skin problems, etc. E. angustifolium extracts exhibit antiproliferative, cytotoxic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antimicrobial activities. The unique combination of biological properties demonstrated by the results of some studies indicates that its extracts exert a positive effect in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and potentially in the prevention of prostate cancer.

The efficacy of phytotherapy with E. angustifolium is still poorly tested in clinical trials, while numerous beneficial effects of the extracts on prostate function have been documented in in vitro and in vivo tests.


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    • Isolation of the antiphlogistic principle from Epilobium angustifolium. PlantaMed 1991;57(4): 357-360.
    • Anti-proliferative effect on a prostatic epithelial cell line (PZ-HPV-7) byEpilobium angustifolium L. Farmaco 2001; 56 (5-7): 483–489.
    • Extracts of various speciesof Epilobium inhibit proliferation of human prostate cells. J PharmPharmacol 2003; 55(5): 683–690.
    • Extracts from Epilobium sp.herbs induce apoptosis in human hormone-dependent prostatecancer cells by activating the mitochondrial pathway. J PharmPharmacol 2013; 65(7): 1044-1054.
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    • Evaluation of theantioxidant properties and oxidative stability of Pecorino cheesemade from the raw milk of ewes fed Rosmarinus officinalis L.leaves. Int J Food Sci Tech 2015; 50: 558-565.
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Milk thistle

The use of Silybum marianum for therapeutic purposes of this plant has been known since ancient times. Silymarin is extracted from the pericarp of milk thistle fruits, a mixture of flavonolignans known for their purifying and protective properties on the liver.

Milk thistle is traditionally used in acute or chronic liver disease. Research indicates that this extract is able to perform a regenerative action on the liver cell and counteract the effects of hepatotoxic agents. Furthermore, it is an effective antioxidant.


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Silymarin as Supportive Treatment in Liver Diseases: A Narrative Review Adv Ther. 2020; 37(4): 1279–1301.


Taraxacum officinale, also known as dandelion, is a vegetable that has limited traditional use in East Asian countries. It is used worldwide for its diuretic effect.

Animal studies and in vitro tests indicate that dandelion extract exerts beneficial effects on human health, although more research is needed to attribute these effects to the individual active ingredients

Research in rodents suggests that dandelion may facilitate digestion by increasing the transit of food between the stomach and small intestine. Dandelion root extract may also exert a protective effect on the pancreas and exhibit antiallergenic properties.

Recent studies indicate efficacy of dandelion extracts in conferring protective effects in the liver in mouse models of ethyl alcohol, CCl4 and acetominophen hepatotoxicity secondary to its antioxidant properties, since these toxic substances exert hepatotoxicity by oxidative mechanisms. Feeding dandelion extract to mice with a high-fat diet attenuates fatty liver production and liver inflammation, and subsequent insulin resistance, through modulation of AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) in liver tissue.

According to other studies, oral ingestion of dandelion appears to confer some protective effects on the liver of rodents; the mechanism seems to be due to the antioxidant properties of the dandelion extract.


Mahesh A1, et al. Hepatocurative potential of sesquiterpene lactones of Taraxacum officinale on carbon tetrachloride induced liver toxicity in mice. Acta Biol Hung. (2010)
Davaatseren M1, et al. Taraxacum official (dandelion) leaf extract relieves high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver. Food Chem Toxicol. (2013)
Colle D1, et al. Antioxidant properties of Taraxacum officinale leaf extract are involved in the protective effect against hepatoxicity induced by acetaminophen in mice. J Med Food. (2012)
González-Castejón M1, et al. Reduction of adipogenesis and lipid accumulation by Taraxacum officinale (Dandelion) extracts in 3T3L1 adipocytes: an in vitro study. Phytother Res. (2014)


Curcumin – a yellow pigment found mainly in turmeric (Curcuma longa, Turmerinc English, a flowering plant of the ginger family better known as a spice used in curry) quantity of antioxidants produced by the body.

Curcumin and curcuminoids present in turmeric can be extracted to produce supplements with higher potency than turmeric. However, curcumin is poorly absorbed during digestion, so different formulations have been created to improve its bioavailability.

Main benefits of curcumin

Curcumin supplementation reliably reduces inflammation markers and increases the levels of endogenous antioxidants in the body. Available research supports small to moderate improvements in symptoms of depression and anxiety and in pain and function in osteoarthritis. Research also indicates its effectiveness in reducing LDL cholesterol, blood sugar and blood pressure as well.

Main disadvantages of curcumin

One of the major disadvantages of curcumin is that it is poorly absorbed when orally ingested on its own. As for potential adverse effects, doses of up to 8 grams of curcuminoids have not been associated with serious adverse effects in humans. However, longer-term studies that are more comprehensive in their assessments are needed. Studies using high doses of curcumin have reported some mild adverse effects, including nausea, diarrhea, headache, skin rashes.

How does curcumin work?

The potential beneficial effects of curcumin appear to be primarily a result of its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. These properties are mediated by the direct or indirect interaction of curcumin with various molecular targets, including transcription factors, enzymes, cell cycle proteins, receptors, cell surface adhesion molecule, growth factors, and protein kinases.